Deleted all the files you listed, except there was no Prophet V folder in the AppSupport>Arturia folder. There are folders for Analog Laboratory, Oberheim SEM V, Spark, Spark Vintage Drum Machines, and Wurlitzer V... Downloaded and reinstalled the Prophet V 2.5.3 installer, and relaunched Logic. The PV opened fine and played, but when I changed patches it crashed like it always has.
Standalone mode works perfectly, but has no AU Presets to load.
Did a Permissions Repair, and Restarted my MacPro. Launched Logic, opened the PV. Changing factory presets work fine, but changing to an AU Preset causes audio failure. Again, changing to a new preset crashes Logic...
As usual, every other Arturia AU works just fine. I'm stumped.